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NATURAL 
RESOURCES 



ILLINOIS STATE 

LABORATORY 
OF NATURAL HISTORY | 



LIBRARY 




XI B RAR.Y 

OF THL 

UN IVLR.SITY 
OF ILLINOIS 

NATURAL HISTORY SURVE' 

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FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. 

PUBLICATION 118. 
BOTANICAL SERIES. VOL. II, No. 5. 



FLORA 

OF THE 

SAND KEYS 

OF 

FLORIDA 



BY 



CHARLES FREDERICK MILLSPAUGH, 
Curator, Department of Botany. 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

February, 1907. 

a. Mar. 11, 1907. 



FLORA OF THE SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA 

CHARLES F. MILLSPAUGH 



Mr. O. E. Lansing, Jr., having been commissioned by the Museum 
to make a botanical examination of all those islets lying to the west- 
ward of Key West, Florida, arrived at the City of Key West on the 
twenty-seventh of February, 1904, and, while making arrangements 
there for his work on the sand keys, collected a series of the plants of 
the island. Later he succeeded in commissioning a small sloop, in 
which he visited Marquesas "A" and "C" on March roth; "B" 
and "D" on March lith; "E," "F," "G," "H," "I,"on March 
1 2th; Boca Grande, Ballast and Man Keys on March i3th; Key C, 
Woman Key, Key B, Archer's Key, and the small keys north and 
west of Woman Key on the i4th; and Mule, Cottrell, Mullet and East 
and West Crawfish Keys on the isth. Returning to Key West, and 
gaining passage on the U. S. Lighthouse Tender, he reached Fort 
Jefferson, in the Tortugas. From this garrison, as a base, he worked 
Bird and Loggerhead Keys on March ipth; Sand (or Hospital) and 
East Keys on the 2ist; and concluded his work in an investigation of 
Garden Key on the 22d. 

Mr. Lansing faithfully carried out his instructions, making a 
thorough investigation of each islet, during which he collected every 
species he saw on each no matter how well known to him nor how 
common its occurrence might be. These collections, together with 
his ^comprehensive notes and maps made on the spot, form the basis 
of the detailed consideration of the islets in the following pages. 

As was to be expected, this archipelago proves to be vegetated 
with only the usual broad strand species common to similar situations 
on the Antillean islands in general. The principal value of this survey 
lies, therefore, first: in the historical record of the present flora, which 
should enable future students to determine what species have come to 
the different islands since 1904, and what have been unable to sur- 
vive; second: in the knowledge of what species come first to such 

191 



192 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 

microcosms, thus forming a basis upon which to judge of the ease or 
difficulty of dispersion exhibited by certain species; and third: how, 
and in what conformation, species spread when brought into an 
untainted environment, thus establishing a datum point for the possible 
solution of many problems in plant dissemination, as well as those 
relating to the property inherent in certain plants to maintain their 
specific characters in newly implanted localities. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 193 



THE MAPS 

Heading each map-page is an outline sketch of the whole area 
upon which an arrow points to the islet that is enlarged beneath. The 
enlarged maps of the individual keys are oriented as is usual in maps 
and upon them is indicated, by arbitrary signs, the location and extent 
of the various species, each species being always represented by the 
same sign on the different maps. 

The small keys north and west of Woman Key, Mule Key, 
Cottrell Key, Mullet Key, East and West Crawfish Keys and Conch 
Key being mangrove colonies only; and Long Key and Middle Key 
being devoid of vegetation, are not mapped or included in detail in 
this paper. 



194 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 




TOTU6AS KEYS 



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Key C. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 195 



KEY C 



MARCH 14, 1904 



Alternanthera brasiliana (2373) 

Atriplex cristata (2393) 

Avicennia nitida (2370) *f 

Batis maritima (2374, 2383) "fa 

Borrichia arborescens (2394) A 

Cenchrus tribuloides (2392) P 

Cyperus brunneus (2366) } 

Dondia linearis (2389) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2364) 

Eustachys petraea (2378) D 

Flaveria linearis (2367) G 

Hymenocallis caribaea (2391) F 

Laguncularia racemosa (2379) f 

Lantana involucrata (2387) 

Lithophila vermicularis (2372) 



Melanthera nivea (2369) 
Metastelma bahamense (2377) 
Monanthochloe littoralis (2381) 
Passiflora minima (2390) 
Pithecolobium guadalupense (2376) 
Portulaca oleracea (2375) 
Rhizophora mangle (2395) 
Salicornia ambigua (2380) 
Sesuvium portulacastrum (2382) 
Solanum bahamense (2388) 
Sporobolus purpurascens (2371) 
Sporobolus virginicus (2363) 
Suriana maritima (2386) 
Waltheria americana (2365) 



A low sand and mangrove islet, substantially circular in form, 
about three quarters of a mile in diameter and rising barely two feet 
above the sea at its highest point. The eastern part is devoted 
entirely to a colony of Rhizophora mangle a small sand beach on the 
west being the only dry land in the mass. This bit of strand has an 
immediate sea border of Cenchrus tribuloides backed by a Eustachys- 
Borrichia-Hymenocallis association with which a few patches of Cyperus 
brunneus are mingled. Upon the area between this higher land and 
the mud flat near the mangroves is a mixture of various species with- 
out definite association character; the low, muddy flat between this 
and the mangroves yields the usual Salicornia-Batis-Monanthochloe- 
Sesuviutn association of the key salinas; while bordering the mangroves 
themselves is the typical scattering of Laguncularia and Avicennia. 

The large number of diverse species on so small a bit of land indi- 
cate it to be a favorite resting place of aquatic birds. 



196 . FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 




TOHTU6AS KEYS 



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Man Key. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 197 

MAN KEY 
MARCH 13, 1904 

Q) Alternanthera brasiliana (2353) 3 Galactia spiciformis (2332) 

Andropogon glomeratus (2325, 2357) o Hymenocallis caribaea (2326) 

f Avicennia nitida (2335) > Ipomoea pes-caprae (2330) 

fy 1 Batis maritima (2339) $ Iva imbricata (2342) 

< Borrichia arborescens (2360, 2334) Melanthera nivea (2333, 2348, 

Z Bradburya virginiana (2347, 2350) 23483) 

A Cakile fusiformis (2324. 2328, 2343, Y Panicum maximum (2345) 

2344, 2358) "3 Paspalum distichum (2329) 

cf Cenchrus tribuloides (2346) ** Pithecolobium guadalupense (2362) 

c- Conocarpus erecta (2340) ) Rhizophora mangle (2336) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2338) Sesuvium portulacastrum (2323) 

Cf Euphorbia havanensis (2351, 2354, ^ Solanum bahamense (2361) 

2355, 2356) 5f Suriana maritima (2337) 

3 Eustachys petraea (2352) * Tournefortia gnaphalodes (2341) 

6 Flaveria linearis (2331, 2349) I Uniola paniculata (2359) 

/ Waltheria americana (2327) 

Man Key is a narrow sand ridge about one mile long by a quarter 
mile wide. The southern beach rises abruptly to a bank, about four 
feet high in its central part, whence it slopes to the west into a narrow 
strand and to the east to a sea-washed spit. The brink of the 
plateau is occupied by a Uniola- Euphorbia association with Cakile 
between it and the water. Back of this association is a new aggrega- 
tion of Panicum and Cenchrus. The plateau itself is almost covered 
with Andropogon admixed with scattering plants of Waltheria, Flaveria, 
Ipomoea, and Melanthera, and a goodly sprinkling of Galactia and 
Bradburya. 

The extensive and marked zonal arrangement of the Uniola, 
Panicum, Andropogon, Borrichia, Avicennia, Batis, and Euphorbia is 
unique upon this key; on none other do the various elements of the 
flora remain in such pure colonies; nor is there found anywhere else 
among the keys an area so peculiarly implanted. The next feature 
of note, beside the remarkable zonal arrangement, is the absence of 
Laguncularia from the mangrove border, and Cyperus brunneus from 
the plateau. 



ip8 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



TOHTU6AS KEYS 



MARQUESAS KEVS 





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Woman Key. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 199 

WOMAN KEY 
MARCH 14, 1904 

Andropogon glomeratus (2398) | Galactia spiciformis (2422) 

tf Atriplex cristata (2411) O Hymenocallis caribaea (2405) 

f Avicennia nitida (2410, 2429) n Laguncularia racemosa (2414, 2433) 

<P Batis raaritima (2413) ^ Lithophila vermicularis (2424, 2436) 

< Borrichia arborescens (2420, 2425) Y Panicum maximum (2399, 2435) 
A Cakile fusiformis (2408) A Pithecolobium guadalupense (2423) 

Calonyction album (2400, 2432) } Rhizophora mangle (2421, 2430) 

cf Cenchrus tribuloides (2437) g Rivina humilis laevis (2403, 2406) 

c~ Conocarpus erecta (2407, 2415) Sesuvium portulacastrum (2416) 

Cyperus brunneus (2417, 2418, 2434) D Solanum bahamense (2404, 2426) 
TTt Dondia linearis (2419) f Suriana maritima (2412, 2431) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2409, 2427) I Uniola paniculata (2397) 

Euphorbia Garberi (2396) / Waltheria americana (2402) 

<j> Euphorbia trichotoma (2401, 2428) 

A low, sandy islet, less than a mile long and about one quarter 
mile wide, composed of an abrupt southeastern beach rising about 
three feet above the level of the sea, backed and extended by two 
mangrove colonies. 

The southeast beach is fringed with a line of Sesuvium, terminated 
on the west by a few plants of Cakile. On the rise above this fringe 
grows a nearly complete line of Uniola, back of which the open plateau 
of the key is clothed with a dense growth of Andropogon, amongst 
which are scattering plants of Panicum maximum, Hymenocallis, 
Euphorbia buxifolia and E. Garberi, and Waltheria. On the mud flat, 
between the higher land and the border of the mangroves, are sep- 
arated colonies of Suriana, Sesuvium, Cyperus brunneus, Atriplex cris- 
tata, and Lithophila vermicularis; a single individual of Dondia linearis; 
and two shrubs of Pithecolobium. At the western extremity of the 
AnJropogon community, evidently profiting by the shade cast by the 
Avicennias, are a few individuals of Rivina humilis laevis, Calonyction 
album, Solanum bahamense, and Euphorbia trichotoma. The mangrove 
border presents its usual association of Borrichia arborescens, Batis, 
Sesuvium, Laguncularia, and Avicennia, and two separated nuclei of 
Conocarpus erecta. 

The western half of the key, separated by a narrow strait, is a 
mangrove colony in which a new bit of dry land is in process of forma- 
tion. The flora of this terra nova shows mostly individual infarction 
in its Solanum, Suriana, Calonyction, Lithophila, Euphorbia havanensis, 
and Borrichia arborescens elements, while its Euphorbia buxifolia, Cen- 
chrus tribuloides, Cyperus brunneus, and Panicum maximum show an 
early tendency to communize. Its mangrove border evidences, so 
far, only the primal elements of the usual society Laguncularia- 
Avicennia. 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



r 




TO*TU8AS KEYS 



MABQUEJAi KEV5 



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CO KEY WEST 




Ballast Key. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KF.YS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 201 



BALLAST KEY 



MARCH 13, 1904 



Ambrosia hispida (2308) 
Andropogon glomeratus (2320) 
Atriplex cristata (2315) 
Avicennia nitida (2306) 
Batis maritima (2305) 
Borrichia arborescens (2312) 
Cakile fusiformis (2317, 2318) 
Canavalia obtusifolia (2304) 
Cenchrus tribuloides (2321) 
Conocarpus erecta (2316) 



Cyperus brunneus (2319) 
Euphorbia buxifolia (2302) 
Hymenocallis caribaea (2301) 
Iva imbricata (2309) 
Monanthochloe littoralis (2307) 
Rhizophora mangle (2311) 
Salicornia ambigua (2303) 
Sesuvium portulacastrum (2322) 
Suriana maritima (2310) 
Tournefortia gnaphalodes (2314) 
Uniola paniculata (2313) 



This small key is separated from Man Key by a channel so nar- 
row that the branches of the mangroves of both nearly touch. This 
channel is very shallow and destined soon to be colonized by the man- 
grove and cause the islet to lose its identity in consolidation with Man 
Key. The key is now about 250x240 feet, and in the neighborhood 
of 2 feet at its highest point. Like Bird Key, this islet has no abrupt 
shore, being more or less rounded in topographic contour with the 
strand everywhere at a gentle slope. 

Its vegetation presents the odd condition of having its mangroves 
and Avicennias disposed at the farthest points they could possibly 
grow apart, instead of being, as usual, in association. This condition 
is repeated in the two colonies of Uniola and Euphorbia, one on the 
east and the other on the south strand, though there are two associated 
groups of these elements on the other two shores northwest and 
southeast. 

The two lines of Batis and Salicornia appear to be forming their 
true association with the Avicennia, and at one point Cenchrus its 
frequently noted camaraderie with Uniola. At the north point appears 
a peculiar continuous line of Ambrosia which apparently indicates that 
the strand at this end of the islet is in process of formation from the 
sea. The extensive implantation of Suriana is not pure, like the simi- 
lar growth on Bird Key, but scatteringly admixed with a floor growth 
of Cyperus and Andropogon. 

The small lagoon, on the eastern side, is evidently of late inclusion ; 
again pointing to new strand formation on this part of the key. 



202 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



'"' ' 




TOKTU6AS KEYS 



MARQUESAS KEV5 




ta KEY WEST 



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Boca Grande Key. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 203 



BOCA GRANDE KEY 



MARCH 13, 1904 



Alternanthera brasiliana (2279) 
Ambrosia hispida (2280) 
Andropogon glomeratus (2293) 
Avicennia nitida (2286) 
Batis maritima (2285) 
Bumelia microphylla (2291) 
Caesalpinia crista (2282) 
Cakile fusiformis (2266) 
Cenchrus echinatus (2300^) 
Cordia sebestena (2296) 
Cyperus brunneus (2298) 
Diapedium assurgens (2283) 
Dondia linearis (2294) 
Erithalis fruticosa (2269) 
Ernodea littoralis (2276) 
Euphorbia Garberi (2271) 
Euphorbia havanensis (2300) 
Flaveria linearis (2267) 



C 
D 
f 

/ 



Gossypium religiosum (2287) 
Hymenocallis caribaea (2273) 
Laguncularia racemosa (2290) 
Maytenus phyllanthoides (2292) 
Melanthera nivea (2297) 
Metastelma bahamense (2277) 
Pectis Lessingii (2295) 
Phaseolus pauciflorus (2284) 
Pithecolobium guadalupense (2272, 

2278) 

Rhizophora mangle (2289) 
Salicornia ambigua (2288) 
Sesuvium portulacastrum (2275) 
Smilax havanensis (2274) 
Solanum bahamense (2268) 
Suriana maritima (2299) 
Waltheria americana (2270) 



This most interesting of all the isolated sandy keys is about 
three fourths of a mile long and five eighths of a mile in width. It 
rises abruptly, on the west, from a narrow beach to an elevation of 
about 4 feet, then after exhibiting a narrow and but slightly vegetated 
plateau quickly slopes to two small lagoons and a mangrove-surrounded 
plain consisting principally of small bits of coral rock. 

The narrow western beach is flanked, at the base of the abrupt 
bank which forms the wash line, by an almost continuous line of 
Sesuvium, as is so often the case among these keys. The plateau 
association is Andropogon-Cyperus, instead of Uniola-Euphorbia,\hz latter 
being inexplicably absent, not even presenting a single individual of 
its elements. At the northern end the mangrove border association 
of Avicennia-Dondia-Salicornia-Batis is very characteristic, while the 
heterogeneous admixture of species, between this association and the 
beach, can but suggest a favorite resting ground for both sea and 
land birds. 

The plain of coral debris is peculiar to this key alone in the 
archipelago. It is nearly barren except for its odd aggregation of 
shrubs of Cordia, Gossypium, Bumdia, Melanthera and Maytenus, the 
first two of which suggest former residence of man. The passageway 
between the plateau and the coral plain is flanked on each side by 
large masses of Ambrosia that run into the Laguncularia on the north 
and the mangroves on the south. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 205 



THE MARQUESAS GROUP 

The sand keys forming this group have been arbitrarily designated 
as "A," "B, " "C, " etc., for reference in this work, and are also so 
indicated upon the labels of the specimens, the maps, and in the 
field notes. The reason for this is that these islets are only known 
collectively, among the boat and turtle men, as "The Marquesas," 
not being individually differentiated by them. On the U. S. Coast and 
Geodetic- Chart No. 170, our Key "H" is noted as Round Island and 
the small key lying between our Key "I" and Key "A" (which was 
found to be covered with mangroves only) as Conch Key; these names 
are, however, unknown to the boat men. Mr. Lansing's observations, 
during his survey of the group, point to several changes having befallen 
the islets since the survey which resulted in the formation of the 
chart. Key "A" he found to be continuous'instead of composed of two 
portions; this was also true of Keys "G" and "H" and of Conch 
Key; and Key "D" has been reduced from narrowly oblong to a more 
or less semicircular form. These changes are in no wise peculiar 
but are due to the natural expansion of the mangrove colonies, erosion 
by the waves and current, artd the drifting or upwashing of the fine, 
light, coral sand of which these keys are all composed. All of these 
natural forces are uniting to form, in course of time, a solid island em- 
bracing this whole group. 



206 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 




TOKTU6AS KEYS 



OCJUE3AS KEYS 



03 KEY WEST 



v^> 





Marquesas "A" 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 207 



MARQUESAS "A" 
MARCH 10, 1904 



Ambrosia hispida (2104) 
Andropogon glomeratus (2123) 
"f Avicennia nitida (2101) 
< Borrichia arborescens (2109) 
2 Caesalpinia crista (2103) 
A Cakile fusiformis (2110) 
Calonyction album (2121) 

Cyperus brunneus (2122) 
TTt Dondia linearis (2100) 
Erithalis fruticosa (2119) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2113) 
<y Euphorbia havanensis (2115) 
6 Flaveria linearis (2117) 



n. 



Hymenocallis caribaea (2120) 
Iva imbricata (2124) 
Laguncularia racemosa (2102) 
Lantana involucrata (2III, 2114) 
Melanthera nivea (2116) 
Paspalum distichum (2125) 
Pithecolobium guadalupense (2105, 

2106) 

Rhizophora mangle (2099) 
Sesuvium portulacastrum (2118) 
Suriana maritima (2108) 
Tournefortia gnaphalodes (2107) 
Uniola paniculata (2112) 



This islet, the most western of the Marquesas group, is semilunar 
in outline with the concavity looking substantially inward. It is of 
clear sand, about 1.5 miles long and 300 feet wide, and has an elevation 
of about 3.5 feet maintained throughout its central line of length. 
The northern horn of the crescent is a sloping sand spit; while the 
southern gradually merges into the mangroves that completely border 
the concave western side. The unbroken eastern convex strand is 
very narrow and is backed at the wash line of the waves with an almost 
continuous strip of Sesuvium. The mangrove association is almost 
pure, having only a few Avicennias at its northern extremity and nearby, 
to the south of these, a small number of Erithalis shrubs. 

The central portion of the islet, a sandy plain, is almost covered 
with a quite close growth of Uniola intermingled with the islet's com- 
plete flora as listed above. The vegetable peculiarities of this coloni- 
zation are: The comparatively few shrubs of Suriana; the localized 
lines of Ambrosia and Paspalum; the confinement of Euphorbia buxi- 
folia, Calonyciion and Flaveria to the lower half of the islet when evidently 
the conditions are the same throughout; and the general scattered 
arrangement of the balance of the species. The unicate vegetation 
consists of Caesalpinia, Dondia, and Laguncularia, all on the northern 
half. 



aoS FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



MAR4UE3AS KEYS 



>. 03 Kf T WOT 



FLORIDA 



wr-" 




Marquesas "B." 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 209 



MARQUESAS "B" 
MARCH n, 1904 

Andropogon glomeratus (2163) 
f Avicennia nitida (2165) 

< Borrichia arborescens (2157) 
. : Canavalia obtusifolia (2162) 

Cyperus brunneus (2159, 2161) 
<fo Distichlis maritima (2l6o) 
TTt Dondia linearis (2167) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2168) 
n Laguncularia racemosa (2164) 

Sesuvium portulacastrum (2166) 
f Suriana maritima (2158) 

1 Uniola paniculata (2169) 

This, smallest of the Marquesas group, is a sand key 40 'by 100 
feet in extent, barely twelve inches above the wash of the sea. Its 
sloping strand is broad and clean except at the southeastern point 
where the encroachment of the sea upon the Laguncularias shows a 
tendency to loss of insular area. The flow of the tide forth and back 
through the narrow passages, both to the north and south of this islet, 
is apparently too strong to allow the fruits of Rhizophora to gain a 
roothold upon any part of its shores. 

The Uniola- Euphorbia association, at the wave limits of the north 
strand, is a very characteristic one, terminated at both extremities by 
pure colonies of Sesuvium. The scattered flora of the central portion 
of the islet contains more of the elements of Marquesas ' ' A" to the south 
than of "C" to the north, and one element, in Distichlis, that does not 
appear upon either of its neighbors. 

Without the aid of the mangrove it would seem highly probable 
that this will be one of the last elements to play its part in joining the 
islets of the Marquesas group into a complete mass. 



210 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



10 to 



o* 



FLORIDA 
\ 
S 



TOUTUSAS KIYS 



'* 



k . 00 KEY WtST 



// ******* 







Marquesas "C. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS- OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 211 



MARQUESAS "C" 
MARCH 10, 1904 

^ Atriplex cristata (2129) 

5 Calonyclion album (2137) 

: Canavalia obtusifolia (2135) 

Cyperus brunneus (2131) 

Cf Euphorbia havanensis (2133) 

9 Euphorbia trichotoma (2128) 

ft Flaveria linearis (2136) 

$ Iva imbricata (2134) 

n Laguncularia racemosa (2127) 

= Metastelma bahamense (2139) 

\3 Pharbitis cathartica (2138) 

^ Rhizophora mangle (not collected) 

D Solanum bahamense (2130) 

f Suriana maritima (2132) 

I Uniola paniculata (2126) 

This small sand islet, one of the three forming the nuclei of the 
western consolidation of the group into a future island, is about 250 
feet in length and (including the mangrove association) 50 feet at its 
widest point. It rises abruptly on its northwestern, or sea, beach to a 
central plateau about 3 feet above tide. 

The salient peculiarities of its vegetation are: The absence of 
Sesuvium, Euphorbia buxifolia, and Cakile; the thorough colonization of 
Laguncularia along the mangrove border; the presence of two large 
convolvulaceous colonies Calonyction and Pharbitis; and the presence in 
unicate of Solanum and Iva. With these prominent exceptions the 
general disposition of the vegetation marks a strong similarity to 
Islet "A." 



212 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 




TOHTU6AS KIYS 



/R<JUC3AS\KE' 







** 

XX 

*** 

^ x *-* 

K ^X^ 
7*- it ^t^ 

HXK^ K H 
*f* 



Marquesas "D. " 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 213 



MARQUESAS "D" 
MARCH n, 1904 

Ambrosia hispida (2145) 
< Borrichia arborescens (2155) 
if Caesalpinia crista (2154) 
Cyperus brunneus (2152) 

Ernodea littoralis (2156) 
Euphorbia buxifolia (2143) 

n . Laguncularia racemosa (2151) 

H Lantana involucrata (2144) 

Melanthera nivea (2148) 

A Pithecolobium guadalupense (2147) 

3 Rhizophora mangle (2141) 

Rivina humilis laevis (2146) 

D Solanum bahamense (2149) 

F Sporobolus virginicus (2153) 

f Suriana maritima (2140, 2142) 

1 Uniola paniculata (2150) 

This odd, helmet-shaped islet presents a peculiarly clear-cut com- 
panionship*of the species forming its flora. In extent it is about 150 
by 75 feet with an elevation of about 4 feet throughout the central 
plateau. Its high sea border is almost sheer, while its plateau gently 
slopes into the mangrove swamp that characteristically faces the inner 
shallows of the group. 

The Uniola-Euphorbia-Cyperus association exhibits the usual fea- 
tures with no exception whatever, but beyond this the groupings are 
striking. The central position of the Ambrosia which is almost always 
found on the immediate strand; the strongly separated colonies of 
Sporobolus; the entire absence of Sesuvium when its presence would 
certainly be expected; and the clear-cut isolation of the various 
colonies, that habit the slope between the plateau and the mangroves, 
marks a vegetal problem that can only offer as a solution the youth 
of that portion of the islet between the mangroves and the plateau. 



214 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 




TOKTU6AS KlYS 



MARQUESAS KEYS 

6 



. OH KEY WEST 



$ 



c\^ ^ 
V^ 



^ 




Marquesas " E. " 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 215 

MARQUESAS "E" 

MARCH 11-12, 1904 

Agave decipiens (2184) U Laguncularia racemosa (2192) 

Ambrosia hispida (2170) Melanthera nivea (2179) 

Andropogon glomeratus (2194,2207) = Metastelma bahamense (2172) 

f Avicennia nitida (2191) -j. Oreodoxa regia (2198) 

< Borrichia arborescens (2196) ^ Passiflora minima (2177) 

2 Caesalpinia crista (2207^) \5 Pharbitis cathartica (2200) 

A Cakile fusiformis (2183, 2190) A Pithecolobium guadalupense (2175, 
-: Canavalia obtusifolia (2182) 2188) 

<^ Cenchrus tribuloides (2206) K Rhizophora mangle (2204) 

L Coccolobis uvifera (2197) $ Rivina humilis laevis (2203) 

+ Coccothrinax jucunda (22Ol)| =^ Salicornia ambigua (2186) 

Erithalis fruticosa (2187) O Scaevola Plumieri (2199) 

O Ernodea littoralis (2173, 2193) Sesuvium portulacastrum (2202) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2171, 2185) / Suriana maritima (2174) 

<y Euphorbia havanensis (2180) % Tournefortia gnaphalodes (2195) 

3 Galactia spiciformis (2178, 2181) I Uniola paniculata (2205) 

J Jacquinia keyensis (2176) / Waltheria americana (2189) 

This most extensive link of the group exhibits no characters 
materially differentiating it from islet "F." It showsa growing man- 
grove bond in the process of forming land between its older southern 
end and its younger northern spit. The total extent of the link is in 
the neighborhood of 5 miles, while its dry-ground width is in no place 
over 800 feet and nowhere over 6 feet above sea level. Its two extrem- 
ities are wave and current washed, though the southern shows the 
greater disturbance on account of the strength of the current that 
flows between it and islet "F. " Here the strand is very abrupt and as 
usual in such situations bordered at the wash line with Sesuvium. 

Situated on the higher ground of the northern end is a charcoal 
burner's cabin, long since deserted, the former occupancy of which is 
doubtless responsible for the nearby presence of Agave decipiens and 
Oreodoxa regia, and possibly also of the sea grapes (Coccolobis), though 
not at all for any other species of the islet's vegetation, the well 
developed Coccothrinax being too far away from the cabin to admit the 
possibility of its having been purposely planted there. The sheer rise 
of the northwestern beach is characterized by the absence of vegeta- 
tion, and the clothing of the higher level with a fringing Ambrosia 
colony backed by the usual plateau association of Uniola and Euphor- 
bia. The peculiar long stretch of but slightly vegetated sand joining 
this point with the cabin end exhibits a very "spotty" avevectent 
implantation. The absence of Sesuvium, Cakile,* and Hymenocallis and 

tSee also Thrlnax keyensis p. 240. 

'Except what might easily be a late implantation. 



216 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



^FLORIDA 



TOUTUSAS KEYS 




H 



X K : 



.x 






.K 



X 



3gjja*s* 

X**x**x1l 













X 



My**** 

X,/L Xf f 



F 



H*5*5 

uc^ > X- v >^ 



:X^5^ 



i^*H | jx*$^iji[i 



v*i, v ^XKH.^V^X. ^-.-^ -^ x^ ^^^^ 



Sf^T-v/'Vii 

Wi^]^^ 



Marquesas 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 217 

the presence of Coccothrinax jucunda and Coceolobis on this end of the islet 
strongly suggests that while it was occupied by charcoal burners they 
probably kept a swine or two; that entirely uprooted the former, and 
on account of them the coalers brought in and planted the latter. 

The southern end bears a strong vegetal resemblance to the other 
small islets of the group, the association showing no peculiar characters. 



MARQUESAS "F" 
MARCH 12, 1904 

f Avicennia nitida (2217) 

< Borrichia arborescens (2220) 

A Cakile fusiformis (2213) 

: Canavalia obtusifolia (2219) 

c~ Conocarpus erecta (2216) 

1Tt Dondia linearis (2208, 2209) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2212) 

9 Euphorbia trichotoma (2215) 

=C= Hymenocallis caribaea (2221) 

Melanthera nivea (2211) 

K Rhizophora mangle (2218) 

- Sesuvium portulacastrum (2223) 

D Solanum bahamense (2214) 

V Suriana maritima (2210) 

I Uniola paniculata (2222) 

This formation, only separated from "A" by a channel about 300 
feet wide, shows no other character of differentiation from that key. 
It is about one mile in length and is mostly a mangrove colony. Its 
southern extremity rises in a sand ridge about 3 feet above tide, 
upon which is the usual Uniola-Euphorbia association. The only 
striking vegetal characters are the presence of Euphorbia trichotoma, 
the implantation of the bit of beach central to the eastern margin with 
Conocarpus; and the Avicennia connective between this and the next 
small bit of sand beach to the north. 



218 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



^FLORIDA 



TOTU8AS KEYS 



5^> 



MABQUE3AS KEYS 




*> >;; 

*? 8 f n HH 




Marquesas " G. " 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 219 



MARQUESAS "G" 
MARCH 12, 1904 

f Avicennia nitida (2235) 

< Borrichia arborescens (2236) 

$ Cenchrus tribuloides (2229) 

Cyperus brunneus (2238) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2225) 
cf Euphorbia havanensis (2232) 
/o, Euphorbia heterophylla (2233) 
9 Euphorbia trichotoma (2224) 
$ Iva imbricata (2237) 
n Laguncularia racemosa (2227) 
-3 Paspalum distichum (2239) 
^ Rhizophora mangle (2234) 
^-> Sesuvium portulacastrum (2226) 
f Suriana maritima (2228) 
>(c Tournefortia gnaphalodes (2231) 
I Uniola paniculata (2230) 

This bit of sand and mangrove, about 200x75 ^ eet ' n extent and 
2 feet above the tide, is the beginning of a connective destined to 
unite the group on the south. 

The Uniola association of the sand plateau differs in its component 
species from the other small keys in that the Euphorbia buxifolia 
element is largely supplanted by Cenchrus and Euphorbia havanensis 
and E. heterophylla the latter of doubtful specific differentiation. Its 
vegetal distinction from the other keys is also prominent in the large 
number of individuals of Avicennia associated in forming an unbroken 
landward border for the mangrove colony. 



220 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 




v. JL 



TCWTUBAS KIV3 



ABC1UCJAS KEYS 




,, 
















Marquesas " H." 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 221 



MARQUESAS "H," OR ROUND ISLAND 
MARCH 12, 1904 

^ Atriplex cristata (2246) 

| Avicennia nitida (2242) 

< Borrichia arborescens (2248) 

A Cakile fusiformis (2250) 

TU, Dondia linearis (2249) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2247) 

n Laguncularia racemosa (2241) 

Melanthera nivea (2251) 

K Rhizophora mangle (2245) 

sO: Salicornia ambigua (2243) 

-^ Sesuvium portulacastrum (2252) 

G Sporobolus purpurascens (2244) 

f Suriana maritima (2240) 

This small key, about 1200 feet in area, is distinctive in having 
its plateau, about 3 feet in elevation, absolutely barren of vegetation, 
having as yet formed no Uniola association, the Euphorbia element 
being turned over to the Sesuvium border on the abrupt south beach. 
In the pasty mud at the base of the slope to the Rhizophora swamp, 
close to the mangroves themselves and between therti and the usual 
Laguncularia, is an incipient salina strip devoted solely to Salicornia 
bordered on the landward side by Sporobolus purpurascens. None of 
the other elements of the vegetal association is particularly unique. 



222 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



FLORIDA 




TOHTU6AS KEYS 



MARQUESAS KEYS 



. 03 KiVWEST 



a^ax^-^t ^ ^/: -^ ^ 

0ggfrMx$* 

^*^6^txl? 

*S.X tt< f 1 ^ ^ ^ > 

r "T^T )+f 1 C" _ C~^ / 




Marquesas " I." 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 223 



MARQUESAS "I" 
MARCH 12, 1904 

f Avicennia nitida (2256) 

< Borrichia arborescens (2257) 

(^ Cenchrus tribuloides (2264) 

c- Conocarpus erecta (2259) 

Cyperus brunneus (2262) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2263) 

tf Euphorbia havanensis (2265) 

^ Eustachys petraea (2255) 

$ Iva imbricata (2253) 

X Rhizophora mangle (2258) 

f Suriana maritima (2261) 

I Uniola paniculata (2254) 

/ Waltheria americana (2260) 

A small sand strip about 100 feet in length, 25 feet wide, and less 
than 2 feet in elevation. Its seaward shore is too abrupt for a Sfsu- 
vium colony, or has been recently eroded to such an extent as to have 
lost it. The immediate brow of the bank is given over to the usual 
Uniola- Euphorbia association in which the ample admixture of Suriana 
so near the brink proves with near certainty the erosion of this shore.. 
The colonization of the plateau is quite distinctive in its novel associ- 
ation of Eustachys and Waltheria. This association appears to have 
weaned the Cyperus element away from the Uniola association, which 
in turn has adopted Cenchrus as a substitute. The mangrove border, 
while retaining a complete fringe of Avicennia, here shows for the first 
time in the group a full substitution of Conocarpus for Laguncularia^ 



224 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



TOTU6AS ICIVS 



MARQUESAS KEYS 



, 



FLORIDA 




East Key. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 225 



TORTUGAS GROUP 

The islets of this group, the most western of the Florida Keys, 
are too shifting, or lacking in coral mud, to form an anchorage for 
Rhizophora mangle, in this respect differing radically from the man- 
grove-formed Marquesas group, from which they are separated by over 
fifty miles of open sea. Long* and Middle Keys are so low as to be 
awash during heavy weather and, on this account, are void of vege- 
tation. The details of the vegetation of the other keys of the group 
are as follows: 



EAST KEY 
MARCH 21, 1904 

A Cakile fusiformis (2492) 
cf Cenchrus tribuloides (2487) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2485) 
$ Iva imbricata (2484 and 2486) 
D Scaevola Plumieri (2489) 

Sesuvium portulacastrum (2490) 
% Tournefortia gnaphalodes (2491) 
I Uniola paniculata (2488) 

East Key lies about four miles north of east from Garden Key. 
It is little more than a mere sand bank about 280x50 feet in area. I*s 
west shore is narrow and rises abruptly to an elevation of about 2 feet, 
whence the surface slopes gradually to broad strands on the east and 
south. 

The vegetation consists principally of Cenchrus and Euphorbia 
with a sprinkling of Uniola at the southern end; two isolated patches 
of Sesuvium near the center of the islet; and the few other species 
scattered without definite association. 



226 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



v FLOP i DA 



TOKTUSAS KEYS 



MARdUEJAS KVS 



. 03 KEY WEST 




Sand or Hospital Key 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 227 



SAND, OR HOSPITAL KEY 
MARCH 21, 1904 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2493, 2494) 
? Ipomoea pes-caprae (2497) 
$ Iva imbricata (2496) 
^ Sesuvium portulacastrum (2495) 
I Uniola paniculata (2498) 

Sand Key, the smallest vegetated key in the group, is situated 
about one and a half miles northeast of Garden Key. This little, 
oval patch of sand, known to the natives as Hospital Key, is about 50 
x8o feet, and has lost nearly the same area since it was charted by 
the U. S. Hydrographic Survey. The central portion, which rises 
about three feet above the sea and comprises fully one half the surface 
of the islet, is occupied by a growth of Euphorbia buxifolia and Ipomoea 
pes-caprae flanked on the eastern border by three separated patches of 
Sesuvium portulacastrum, on the west by four shrubby plants of Iva 
imbricata, and on the north by a clump of Uniola paniculata. 



228 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II.. 



tCM.1 >v 



JL 




TOUTUSAS KCVS 




., 00 KEY WEST 




Garden Key. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 229 

GARDEN KEY 
MARCH 22, 1904 



b 

I 



Arharanthus viridis (2521) 4^ 

Argemone leiocarpa (2531) $ 

Atriplex cristata (2522) s 

Bidens leucantha (2506) 

Boerhaavia viscosa (2530) # 

Cakile fusiformis (2517, 2526) ~D 

Canavalia obtusifolia (2516) P 

Capraria saxifragaefolia (2501) T 
Cenchrus echinatus (2512) 

Cenchrus tribuloides (2511) A 

Cyperus brunneus (2529) B 

Euphorbia adenoptera (2502) U 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2523) G 

Euphorbia havanensis (2536) f 

Eustachys petraea (2504) K 
Heliotropium curassavicum (2509) >|c 

Hymenocallis caribaea (2514) I 



Ipomoea pes-caprae (2518) 
Iva imbricata (2520) 
Lithophila vermicularis (2527) 
Melanthera nivea (2505) 
Opuntia Dillenii (2537) 
Paspalum distichum (2528) 
Portulaca oleracea (2503) 
Sesbania sericea (2519) 
Sesuvium portulacastrum (2524) 
Sida carpinifolia (2515, 2535) 
Sida diffusa (2534) 
Sonchus oleraceus (2499, 2533) 
Sporobolus purpurascens (2507-8) 
Suriana maritima (2532) 
Syntherisma fimbriatum (2510) 
Tournefortia gnaphalodes (2513) 
Uniola paniculata (2525) 
Valerianodes jamaicensis (2500) 



Garden Key, the central islet of the group, is almost wholly 
occupied by the structure and outbuildings of Fort Jefferson, leaving 
to natural vegetation only a small sandy point to the northeast and a 
somewhat larger one to the south of the walls of the fortress. Within 
the bastion walls, near the officers' quarters, have been planted about 
thirty trees of Avicennia nitida, one Tamarindus indica, and a number 
of individuals of Catappa catappa, the balance of the enclosed area 
being devoted to a parade ground. On the western edge of this parade 
are a few clumps of Hymenocallis caribaea; on the parade itself a few 
plants of Sida carpinifolia; in the waste space back of the officers' 
quarters several clumps of Sida diffusa; and within the walls of a ruined 
powder magazine a few plants of Sonchus oleraceus. 

The small area of natural islet northeast of the base of the fortress 
walls supports an intermingling of the following species: Paspalum 
distichum, Cakile fusiformis, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Sporobolus pur- 
purascens, Uniola paniculata, Tournefortia gnaphalodes, Suriana marilima, 
Euphorbia buxifolia, Cenchrus echinatus, Syntherisma fimbriatum, and Iva 
imbricata. This vegetated area is bordered on the east by a complete 
line of Cenchrus tribuloides and Cyperus brunneus. 

The southern projection of the key presents the most interesting 



230 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 

flora of the Tortugas group. The great number of species on this bit 
of sand, not differing in itself from that of the other islets, must be 
due either to ballast dumping or some element connected with the 
presence of man. Along the west beach is a stretch of Paspalum dis- 
tichum with a sprinkling of Cyperus brunneus, two isolated patches of 
Lithophila vermicularis, and beyond these to the southern extremity a 
complete border of Uniola paniculata with a fringe of Cenchrus tribu- 
loides at its seaward base. The southern portion of the point is given 
up to Canavalia obtusifolia which is separated from the Uniola by a 
growth of Euphorbia buxifolia. In the center of the spit is a hetero- 
geneous intermingling of Ipomoea pes-caprae, Euphorbia btixifolia, Atri- 
plex cristata, Bidens leucantha, Suriana maritima, Tournefortia gnapha- 
lodes, Heliotropium curassavicum, Canavalia obtusifolia, Sida carpinifolia, 
Melanthera nivea, Sonchus oleraceus, Eustachys petraea, Capraria 
saxifragaefolia, Sesbania sericea, Sporobolus purpurascens, Euphorbia 
adenoptera and Portulaca oleracea. Near an outbuilding, a few feet 
from the base of the moat wall, is a clump of Opuntia Dillenii, a 
cluster of Amaranthus viridis, and a patch of Boerhaavia viscosa; 
between these and the board walk the space is occupied entirely by 
Canavalia obtusifolia, terminating in one plant of Sesbania sericea. The 
bit of sand between the walk and the east beach close to the wall of 
the moat is occupied by the Canavalia, Argemone leiocarpa, Sonchus 
oleraceus, Valerianodes jamaicensis, Iva imbricata, and immediately at 
the beach Ipomoea pes-caprae. 

On the coping of the bastions grows the only implantation of 
Euphorbia havanensis in the group; it is accompanied by Canavalia 
obtusifolia and Melanthera nivea. 



232 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



> FLORIDA 



TORT US AS KEYS 



MARQUESAS KCVS 




. KEY wtST 




Bird Key. 



FEH. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 233 

BIRD KEY 
MARCH 19, 1904 

A Cakile fusiformis (2458, 2460, 2462, -3 Paspalum distichum (2450) 

2463) P Portulaca oleracea (2459) 

tf Cenchrus tribuloides (2454^ ) D Scaevola Plumieri (2456) 

Cyperus brunneus (2452) Sesuvium portulacastrum (2461) 

Euphorbia buxifolia (2453, 2455) f Suriana maritima (2451) 

# Opuntia Dillenii (2454) jjc Tournefortia gnaphalodes (2449) 

I Uniola paniculata (2457) 

This low sand islet, situated about three quarters of a mile south 
of west from Garden Key, extends about 500 feet north and south, 
about 250 feet east and west at its broadest part, and at its highest 
point rises only about 3^ feet above the sea. The northern extremity 
is a broad sea-washed sand spit; the west beach is very narrow and 
rises immediately into an abrupt bank about two feet high; the east 
shore slopes into a broad strand, and the southern extremity forms a 
sand spit similar to that of the north point but less extensive. Wave 
action from the northwest appears to be rapidly eroding the western 
beach, the vegetation on the shore plainly showing the encroachment. 

Almost the entire Key is covered with a dense growth of Suriana 
maritima which extends to the verge of the west shore and to the wave 
limit of the east beach, clothing the center of the islet to the exclu- 
sion of other species. The east border is plentifully strewn with an 
intermingling of Cenchrus tribuloides, Cyperus brunneus, Euphorbia bux- 
ifolia and Tournefortia gnaphalodes, while scattering clumps of Cakile 
fusiformis venture out from this zone toward the sea. Two small, 
separate colonies of Sesuvium portulacastrum have become established 
at the wave line of the northern point, the space between them and the 
Suriana being occupied by a shrubby form of Euphorbia buxifolia 
(2455). Toward the southern extremity of the eastern wave limit 
appear two detached plants of Scaevola Plumieri and between them a 
small patch of Portulaca oleracea. The wave line is terminated on the 
south by an extensive growth of Paspalum distichum and ends with two 
plants of Uniola paniculata, the latter species also appearing south of 
a clump of Opuntia Dillenii near the hospital boat landing on the 
western beach. These twelve species comprise all of the vegetation 
observed upon the key. 



234 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



^FLORIDA 



TDHTUCA* KIYS 



MAR9UC5AS KEYS 





Loggerhead Key. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 235 



LOGGERHEAD KEY 



MARCH 19, 1904 



Caesalpinia crista (2479) 
Cakile fusiformis (2472) 
Calonyction album (2483) 
Canavalia obtusifolia (2464) 
Capraria biflora (2477) 
Cordia sebestena 
Euphorbia buxifolia (2475) 
Hymenocallis caribaea 
Ipomoea pes-caprae (2470) 
Iva imbricata (2471, 2473) 



Melanthera nivea (2482) 

? Opuntia Dillenii (2476) 

P Portulaca oleracea (2480) 

8 Salvia serotina (2481) 

D Scaevola Plumieri (2469) 

Sesuvium portulacastrum (2468) 

F Sporobolus virginicus (2474) 

tf Suriana maritima (2465) 

% Tournefortia gnaphalodes (2467) 

~ Tribulus cistoides (2478) 

I Uniola paniculata (2466) 



This highest and westernmost key of the archipelago, and largest 
of the Tortugas group, is completely reef-invested on its eastern and 
western shores. It is about three quarters of a mile long by an eighth 
of a mile broad, with a central plateau full nine feet above tide. 
Although it has for years been occupied by a lighthouse and its 
attendants, it is nevertheless notably free of homovectent plants, 
Salvia, Cordia sebestena and Tribulus being the only species present 
that might be considered to have been brought here by man. 

Its central plateau, like that of Bird Key, is entirely implanted 
with a pure Suriana group, the individuals of which are about six feet 
high. The vegetation of the islet presents no associations whatever, 
all its species being elementally scattered subtropic, maritime "weeds. " 
Even the usually associated Uniola and Euphorbia appear as far separ- 
ated as the limits of the surface will allow. 

The lighthouse enclosure contains a Papaya, and several Coconut 
and Geiger trees, the walk being bordered by two patches of Hymeno- 
callis. The garden contained no flower-beds nor vegetable patches 
at the time of Mr. Lansing's visit. 



236 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



SUMMARY 

This reconnaissance of a full series of isolated and grouped sub- 
tropic sand keys, appears to prove that such species as are able to 
avail themselves of avevectent and aquavectent transportation, and 
can withstand, or actually need, a surcharged saline soil and atmos- 
phere avail themselves, with more or less heterogeneity of association, 
of those sands upon which their seeds are cast; there to spread in just 
so far as their demands for nourishment and needful space will permit. 
Ventevectant transportation appears to play no part whatever in the 
vegetal colonization of such isolated portions of land. 



DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES 

Agave decipiens : 

This species undoubtedly has been planted qn Marquesas "E" by 
the charcoal burners who once camped thereon. There are abou* a 
dozen of the plants together not far from the location occupied 
formerly by their hut.* It was probably planted there that it might 
serve in lieu of soap when stores of that detergent failed. 
Amaranthus viridis: 

See note under Argemone leiocarpa. 
Argemone leiocarpa : 

This species is one of the forms of the common Antillean weed 
A. mexicana, appearing, like its frequent companions Bidens leucantha, 
Sonchus oleraceus, and Amaranthus viridis, frequently about the hab- 
itations of man. Their introduction on Garden Key is doubtless due 
to ballast shifting, as are also Capraria biflora, Euphorbia adenoptera, 
Heliotropium curassavicum and Sesbania sericea. 
Avicennia nitida: 

Occurs only in association with the mangrove and even then only 
on the receding, and drying borders. (On the south side of New 
Providence, in the Bahamas, it is, however, found in the open but 
shallow sea fully a hundred yards or more from the shore.) 



* See under Rhitophora mangle. 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 237 

Batis maritime.: 

See concluding paragraph under this head. 
Bidens leucantha: 

See note under Argemone leiocarpa. 
Borrichia arborescens: 

See concluding paragraph under this head. 
(_ 'akile fusiformis: 

None of the Antillean species is better adapted to dissemination 
by water than this, nor indeed for ready spreading when once a foot- 
hold is gained. See page 125. 
Cacsalpinia crista: 

Doubtless aquavectent. The pods are excellent pontoons and are 
often found at sea far from land. 
Canavalia obtusifolia: 

Doubtless aquavectent. The pods are excellent voyagers and the 
seeds retain their vitality even after prolonged salt water immersion. 
Capraria hi flora: 

See note under Argemone leiocarpa. 
Cenchrtis tribul aides: 

The fruits of this grass are especially adapted for clinging to the 
webbed feet of marine birds; it is, on this account, one of the first 
species to be implanted upon newly formed strands and islets. 
Coccolobis uvifera: 

While the Sea Grape is a common plant on the rocky keys of 
Florida and the shores of the Antillean Islands in general, and its 
appearance on these sand keys might be considered by no means 
extraordinary, yet I am inclined to judge that it is planted on Marque- 
sas "E" (the only islet of the archipelago on which it is found). 
Coccothrinax, jucunda : 

This species is common on the eastward keys of Florida and there 
appears no valid reason why it may not have been implanted naturally 
upon Marquesas "E." From the fact that this species will not survive 
transplantation it is certain that the supposition that it had been 
brought here to serve for future rethatching of the hut is erroneous. 
Conocarpus e recta: 

See concluding paragraph under this head. 
Cordia sebestena: 

The natural implantation of this species in both its localities 
(Boca Grande and Loggerhead Keys) is open to serious doubt. On 
account of the splendor of its flaming flowers it has become a common 



238 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 

practice in the Antilles to plant, or at least transplant, it as an orna- 
mental shrub. It, however, readily spreads from seed after being 
planted and the upper station on Loggerhead Key, among the Surianas, 
is quite possibly due to "seeding in." 
Cyperus brunneus: 

This species is a quite constant element of the Antillean strand 
flora from the Bahamian Archipelago through to Vera Cruz, Mexico. 
The seeds are avevectent, per pedis et intestinis. See concluding para- 
graph under this head. 
Dondia linearis: 

See concluding paragraph under this head. 
Euphorbia, adenoptera: 

See note under Argemone leiocarpa. 
Euphorbia buxi folia: 

This is the commonest herbaceous species of the Antillean strand 
flora. Its communication from island to island is accomplished prin- 
cipally through the medium of the feet of aquatic birds. Once estab- 
lished it apparently spreads, not only by the catapultic property of the 
fruits, but also through the drifting of the seed with the shifting sand. 
Gossypium religiosum: 

See remarks under Boca Grande- Key. 
Heliotropium eurassavicum: 

See note under Argemone leiocarpa. 
Hymenocallis caribaea: 

See remarks under Marquesas "E." 
Ipomoea pes-caprae and Calonyction album: 

I am somewhat in doubt as to whether the fruits of these plants 
are aquavectent (a method of transportation for which they are well 
fitted) or whether the seeds are avevectent; the latter, I should judge 
from the often high location of the species on many rocky Antillean 
islands, is the more probable. 
Iva imbricata: 

See concluding paragraph under this head. 
Jacquinia keyensis: 

This shrub is of very common occurrence upon the eastern keys 
of Florida and the islands of the Bahamian Archipelago. Notwith- 
standing the fact that its growth upon Marquesas "E" is unique, and 
represented by but two specimens, I am inclined to include it among 
the naturally implanted species. 
Laguncularia racemosa: 

This species is generally found on the receding border of a man- 



FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 239 

grove colony. The exception is Key "B" of the Marquesas group, 
where it is present notwithstanding the fact that the mangrove is en- 
tirely absent; and Marquesas Keys 4< F" and "I," and Man and Ballast 
Keys, where although the mangrove colony borders seem espe- 
cially suitable to its growth, the Laguncularia has not yet, at least, 
become implanted. 
Opuntia Dillenii: 

This common Antillean cactus is one of the most readily avevec- 
tent species. Its implantation on Bird and Garden Keys is therefore 
not at all unnatural. Although, from its location on Loggerhead Key 
the introduction of the species might well be supposed to be homo- 
vectent, yet, as I have noted its presence on other tropic sand keys 
where of a certainty man would not have planted nor even conveyed 
it, I feel justified in considering the presence of the plant also natural 
in this situation. 
Oreodoxa regia: 

About half a dozen of these Royal Palms still stand on Marquesas 
"E" near the charcoal burner's hut* to which situation they were doubt- 
less transplanted from the neighborhood of Cape Sable, probably by 
the coalers themselves. They served the camp two purposes: that of 
shade, and as a much needed landfall when returning from boat 
expeditions. 
Pithecolobium guadalupense: 

The bony seeds of this species are partly invested by a fleshy aril 
attractive to birds both in color and in taste. This species becomes 
quite readily transplanted through the medium of the larger migrating 
land birds. 
Rhizophora mangle: 

This species occurs upon all the islets between Key West and the 
Marquesas group, and upon all the islets of that group except key "B" 
where the shores are too strongly current-washed to permit of its 
gaining a roothold. Many of the smaller keys noted upon the charts 
of this region proved, in so far as they could be examined, to be pure 
colonies of this species with no dry land among the plants. The 
mangrove has not yet found a resting place upon any of the Tortugas. 
This species yields one of the best and hardest of charcoals and was 
at one time extensively "burned" upon Marquesas "E". 



* See under Rkitophora mangle. 



'240 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 

Salicornia ambigua: 

See concluding paragraph under this head. 
Salvia serotina: 

While this species is a common Antillean weed yet, from its 
widespread utilization as an antifebrile tea, I judge that its presence 
in the dooryard of the lighthouse residence on Loggerhead Key is due 
to intentional planting. 
Scaevola Plumieri: 

The black, pulpy fruits of this plant form a very attractive food 
for land birds; it thus becomes scattered far throughout the Antillean 
region. 
Sesbania sericea: 

See note under Argemone leiocarpa. 
Sesuvium portulacastruni: 

This is one of the commonest examples of aquavectant plants in 
this region. Its large, bladder-like leaves prove excellent pontoons 
to float the light axillary capsules. This is generally about the first 
herb to find anchorage upon newly formed sand islets and strands. 
Sida carpi nifolia: 

This, with its companion species, S. diffusa, is one of the com- 
monest grass-plat and wayside weeds of the Antilles. The introduc- 
tion of these two species into the lawn of Fort Jefferson on Garden 
Key was possibly accomplished through sowing grass seed from Key 
West or South Florida. 
Sonchus oleraceus: 

See note under Argemone leiocarpa. 
[ Thrinax keyensis: 

The type locality for this species is Marquesas "E, " where it is 
doubtless in close association with Coccothrinax jucunda. As the 
species have a similar appearance when neither in fruit nor flower, 
Mr. Lansing only collected the latter.] 
Tribulus terrestris: 

There is little doubt but that the presence of this species in the 
dooryard of the lighthouse on Loggerhead Key is due to intentional 
transplantation from Key West or Indian Key. 



The balance of the species in the Table of Distribution are com- 
mon Antillean avevectent plants that are coming into the Sand Key 
Flora with more or less heterogeneity, and will doubtless continue to 
do so and be added to by many other species of like ease of trans- 
portation. 



in 

FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 241 

SEQUENCE OF APPEARANCE. 

From a somewhat wide field study of isolated insular and strand 
formations in the Antillean region I have come to the conclusion that 
the order of precedence in the clothing of the wave-formed sand keys 
of Florida has been substantially as follows: 

1. Sesuvium portulacastrum (Aquavectent). 

2. Cakile fusiformis (Aquavectent). 

3. Euphorbia buxifolia (Avevectent).* 

( Cenchrus tribuloides /A 
4 ' | Cyperus brunneus (Avevectent).* 

5. Uniola paniculata (Aquavectent). 

6. Andropogon glomeratus (Avevectent).* 
( Suriana maritima 

7" \ Tournefortia gnaphalodes (Avevectent).* 

j Borrichia arborescens , . 
8 " ] Iva imbricata (Avevectent).* 

9. , Ambrosia hispida (Aquavectent). 

Of the mangrove-formed strands the order of precedence, from 
the mangrove nucleus toward the strand, appears to be: 
i. Rhizophora mangle (Aquavectent). 

j Avicennia nitida ,. , 

I Laguncularia racemosa ^ 

3. Conocarpus erecta (Avevectent). 
( Batis maritima 

4. < Salicornia ambigua (Avevectent). 
( Dondia linearis 

The open or sea margin of the mangrove-formed strand vegetates 
synchronously with the mangrove border in the usual sequence of the 
sand keys. 

An interesting comparative map, that may be consulted in illus- 
tration of these conclusions, is that of Woman Key, where we have 
not only an open or sea islet strand on the eastern part of the key, 
but also an isolated mangrove islet on the western part still entirely 
surrounded by a Rhizophora colony upon which there is an utter 
absence of species depending upon the sea for dissemination. 



* Through the medium of the feet of sea birds. 



242 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM BOTANY, VOL. II. 



LIST OF SPECIES 


u 

> 


Woman Key 


B.illast Key 


Man Key 


Boca Grande 


MARQUESAS 


-; 


z 

~. 
1 


Sand Key 


C.irdon Kov 


>. 
o 


Loggerhead | 




"G" -i- 


"i -B "C "D "t "! 




i 
i 


z 
z 


z 


z 


i 
i 


i 




I 


I 


I 

I 

I 

I 


I 




I 
I 


I 


I 
1 




I 

i 
I 

I 
I 

i 

i 
I 

i 
I 

i 
I 


i 
i 
i 


i 
i 

i 
i 






I 


Ambrosia hispida 


Andropogun glomeratus 


z 










Atriplex cristata 


Batis maritima 


i 
i 

i 

i 

i 

i 
i 
i 

i 

i 
i 
z 


z 
z 

z 

I 

z 
I 

z 

I 
z 

z. 

z 
z 

.z 
z 

z 

I 

z 
I 


1 
I 

z 

I 

z 

z 
z 

I 

z 

z 
I 

I 

I 

I 


i 

i 
i 

i 

z 
z 

I 
I 

1 
I 
I 

I 

1 
1 

I 

I 
I 

I 

I 


i 

i 
i 
"z 

z 

z 
z 
z 

I 
z 
I 

I 
I 

I 

I 
I 








Boerhaavia viscosa 
Borrichia arborescens 
Bradburya virgin ana 


i 
i 
i 

i 

i 
i 

i 
i 

i 

i 
i 


i 

z 

z 
I 

I 


I 
I 

z 

z 
I 

I 

I 


I 

1 

z 
z 


I 

I 
I 

I 

I 
I 

I 

I 
I 

I 
I 

z 
I 


I 
I 

I 

I 
I 
I 

I 


I 

I 


I 
I 


I 

I 

I 


Bumelia micropbylla 


Caesalpinia crista . . 


Cakile fusiformis 




Canavalia- obtusifo a 


Capraria birlora 


Cenchrus echinatus 




Coccolobis uvifera 


Coccothrinax jucunda 


Conocarpus erecta 


Cordia sebestena 


Cyperus brunneus 


Diapedi um assurgens 


Distichlis maritima 


Dondia linearis 


Erithalis fruticosa 


Ernodea littoral is 


Euphorbia adenoptera 


Garberi 


I 
I 
I 




I 
I 




i 


I 
I 

I 
I 

i 




bavanensis 


heterophylla 


trichotonia 


Eustachys petraea 


Flaveria linearis . . . . 


Galactia spiciformis 


Gossypium religiosum 


Heliotropium curassavicum 
Hymenocallis caribaea 


Ipomoea pes-capras 


Jacquinia keyensis 








I 




1 
i 

i 
i 

i 
i 


i 

i 

i 

i 


i 

i 

i 

i 

i 


Lan tana i nvoluc rata 


I 
I 

I 

I 
I 

I 
I 


i 

I 

i 

i 
i 




z 

1 
I 


I 
z- 

z 


z 
z 

I 

z' 

I 
z 


I 


I 


I 


Litbophila vermicularis . 


Maytenus phyllantboides 


Melanthera nivea 


Metastelma bahamense 


Monanthochloe littoral is 


Opuntia Dillenii 


Oreodoxa regia 


Panicum maximum 


Paspalum distichuni 


PassiHora minima 


Pectis Lessingii 


Pharbitis cathartica 


Phaseolus paucirlorus . . . . 


Pithecolobium guadalupense... 
Portulaca oleracea 


Rivina humilis laevis 


z 


I 
z 

I 






I 




Salicornia ambigua 


Salvia serotina 


Scaevola Plumieri 


Sesbania sericea 





FEB. 1907. FLORA SAND KEYS OF FLORIDA MILLSPAUGH. 243 



LIST OF SPECIES 


u 

It 


Woman Key 


f 


u 

= 




Boca Grande 


MARQUESAS 


East Key 


Sand Key 


"i 

a 
. 


a 

a 


Bird Key 


Loggerhead | 


a 


*"* 




C D T r "G 1 'T 
















1 


I 


I 
I 


I 


1 
I 


I 


I 

X 


I 

I 
I 


i 

i 

i 


i 
i 


i 


i 

i 
i 
i 


i 




I 

1 
I 

I 


i 
i 

i 

i 


i 

i 
i 


I 

I 
X. 
I 
X 


i 
i 

X 
X 


i 

X 
X 












virginicus 


Syntherisma fimbriatum . . . 


X 


X 


I 


I 
I 
I 


I 


X 

I 




Tournefortia gnaphalodes 






Valerianodes jamaicensis ... . . 





INDEX. 



Ballast Key 201. 
Bird Key 233. 
Boca Grande Key 203. 
Conch Key 193, 205. 
Cottrell Key 193. 
Crawfish Keys 193. 
East Key 22;. 
Fort Jefferson 229. 
Garden Key 229. 
Hospital Key 227. 



KeyC 195. 
Loggerhead Key 235, 
Long Key 193, 225. 
Man Key 197. 
Marquesas Group 20;. 

"A" 207. 

"B" 209. 

"C" 211. 

"D" 213. 
"E" 215 
"F" 217. 



Marquesas "G" 219. 

"H" 221. 

" I " 223. 

Middle Key 193, 22; 
Mule Key 193. 
Mullet Key 193. 
Round Island 205, 221. 
Sand Key 227. 
Tortugas Group 22$. 
Woman Key 199. 



245 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA